Work-life balance is a term that represents the balance that people need between time allocated to work and other life. Living spheres other than workers are not limited to personal concerns, family, and social activities, leisure activities. The term “work-life balance” is the most recent origin since it was first used in the UK and the US in the late 1970’s and 1980’s, respectively. Recently this term is confusing, but this is partly due to recent technological changes and progress that allowed us to complete the work and work goals in a 24-hour cycle. By using a smartphone, e-mail, video chat, and other innovations, it has become possible to work without taking a typical “9 to 5 business days”.
There are 4 moderators who are related to work imbalance: gender, time spent at work, family characteristics.
Differences in gender may lead to work imbalance due to the clear recognition of role identity. While women prioritize family living, men have been shown to give priority to work over housework and provide financial support for their families. Spending a long time on work to “lack of flexibility, change of work requirements, the performance of overtime or nighttime duties” can lead to imbalances between work and family duties. “The time spent at work was positively correlated with work interference due to household and family interference to work, but it was not related to satisfaction among domains.” It means that satisfaction is a subjective measure It may be a cause. It is said that long times may be interpreted positively or negatively by individuals. Working for a long time will affect your family’s obligations, but on the other side, there is a financial gain that accompanies this behavior denying the impact on family duties.
Family characteristics include a single employer, married or cohabiting employer, parent employer, and double income parent. Family satisfaction will be lowered by parents who are employed, depending on their obligations and necessary conditions. This is because we can not successfully complete the duties of these families. In addition, because parent workers emphasize family-oriented activities, their ability to achieve this identity will be diminished even after a long period of work, instead, the family’s satisfaction will decline. Marriage and double-income couples said, “Not only do we need more time and effort at home, but also by increasing sympathy and support, through high income, and emotionally, It is also a resource. ”
In addition to the host who leads to imbalance, many people enjoy high social recognition, so they are exposed to annoying work stress. This aspect can also cause an imbalance in the realm of life. However, other occupational activities may lead to imbalances such as unpaid work such as contributions to home and garden work, family maintenance, and support, volunteer activities etc. All of these contribute to the recognition of chronic lack of time. The lack of time leads to pressure to make different experiences based on the age of the individual, the age and number of children in the household, marital status, occupation and employment level, and income level. Strong time pressure increases psychological strain, which in turn affects health. Psychological tension is also affected by work complexity, increased responsibility, concerns over long-term existential protection. The stresses and strains mentioned may result in long-term irreversible and physical wear signs as well as negative effects on the human cardiovascular system and the immune system.
Improving work-life balance
Work-life balance has been dealt with by some employers and has been regarded as those benefits. In fact, employees report on improving job satisfaction, improving the sense of stability of employment, improving physical and mental health, reducing stress on work and strengthening the management of the environment. In fact, work-life balance is beneficial not only for employees but also for organizations. When work-life balance is introduced to employees, organizations are absent from work, late for work, and fewer employee turnover. In addition, there is increased employment of valuable employees, increased loyalty to employees, commitment to the organization, improvement of productivity, improvement of an organizational image.
In the literature, “worker’s family policy, family friendly policy, family correspondence policy” is a practice that takes a balance between work and life into account. In fact, “The main way for companies to promote employee work-life balance is work-life practices related to flexible work and shortened working hours and family-friendly policies. According to Hartel et al. , “To manage the balance of work life as well as flexible working hours, working time schedule, part-time work, compressed working weeks, child care leave, telecommuting, home-based child care facilities”Research by Canadian deputy professor and psychology researcher Yani Likongo has shown that in order to create “informal trading” in terms of work-life balance, sometimes unique psychological contracts within the organization between employees and their direct supervisors It was shown that it was built. These “transactions” support the idea of a constructivist approach, including both employers and employees, based on the concessions situation of both.